Expired Pointer Dereference
The product dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.
When a product releases memory, but it maintains a pointer to that memory, then the memory might be re-allocated at a later time. If the original pointer is accessed to read or write data, then this could cause the product to read or modify data that is in use by a different function or process. Depending on how the newly-allocated memory is used, this could lead to a denial of service, information exposure, or code execution.
The following examples help to illustrate the nature of this weakness and describe methods or techniques which can be used to mitigate the risk.
Note that the examples here are by no means exhaustive and any given weakness may have many subtle varieties, each of which may require different detection methods or runtime controls.
The following code shows a simple example of a use after free error:
When an error occurs, the pointer is immediately freed. However, this pointer is later incorrectly used in the logError function.
The following code shows a simple example of a double free error:
Double free vulnerabilities have two common (and sometimes overlapping) causes:
Error conditions and other exceptional circumstances
Confusion over which part of the program is responsible for freeing the memory
Although some double free vulnerabilities are not much more complicated than the previous example, most are spread out across hundreds of lines of code or even different files. Programmers seem particularly susceptible to freeing global variables more than once.
Weaknesses in this category are related to memory safety.
Weaknesses in this category are related to improper handling of pointers.
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This view contains a selection of weaknesses that represent the variety of weaknesses that are captured in CWE, at a level of abstraction that is likely to be useful t...