Insertion of Sensitive Information into Log File

Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.


Description

While logging all information may be helpful during development stages, it is important that logging levels be set appropriately before a product ships so that sensitive user data and system information are not accidentally exposed to potential attackers.

Different log files may be produced and stored for:

Server log files (e.g. server.log). This can give information on whatever application left the file. Usually this can give full path names and system information, and sometimes usernames and passwords.

log files that are used for debugging

Demonstrations

The following examples help to illustrate the nature of this weakness and describe methods or techniques which can be used to mitigate the risk.

Note that the examples here are by no means exhaustive and any given weakness may have many subtle varieties, each of which may require different detection methods or runtime controls.

Example One

In the following code snippet, a user's full name and credit card number are written to a log file.

logger.info("Username: " + usernme + ", CCN: " + ccn);

Example Two

This code stores location information about the current user:

locationClient = new LocationClient(this, this, this);
locationClient.connect();
currentUser.setLocation(locationClient.getLastLocation());
...

catch (Exception e) {
  AlertDialog.Builder builder = new AlertDialog.Builder(this);
  builder.setMessage("Sorry, this application has experienced an error.");
  AlertDialog alert = builder.create();
  alert.show();
  Log.e("ExampleActivity", "Caught exception: " + e + " While on User:" + User.toString());
}

When the application encounters an exception it will write the user object to the log. Because the user object contains location information, the user's location is also written to the log.

Example Three

In the example below, the method getUserBankAccount retrieves a bank account object from a database using the supplied username and account number to query the database. If an SQLException is raised when querying the database, an error message is created and output to a log file.

public BankAccount getUserBankAccount(String username, String accountNumber) {

  BankAccount userAccount = null;
  String query = null;
  try {
    if (isAuthorizedUser(username)) {
      query = "SELECT * FROM accounts WHERE owner = "
      + username + " AND accountID = " + accountNumber;
      DatabaseManager dbManager = new DatabaseManager();
      Connection conn = dbManager.getConnection();
      Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
      ResultSet queryResult = stmt.executeQuery(query);
      userAccount = (BankAccount)queryResult.getObject(accountNumber);
    }
  } catch (SQLException ex) {
    String logMessage = "Unable to retrieve account information from database,\nquery: " + query;
    Logger.getLogger(BankManager.class.getName()).log(Level.SEVERE, logMessage, ex);
  }
  return userAccount;

}

The error message that is created includes information about the database query that may contain sensitive information about the database or query logic. In this case, the error message will expose the table name and column names used in the database. This data could be used to simplify other attacks, such as SQL injection (CWE-89) to directly access the database.

See Also

Audit / Logging Errors

Weaknesses in this category are related to audit-based components of a software system. Frequently these deal with logging user activities in order to identify undesir...

SEI CERT Oracle Secure Coding Standard for Java - Guidelines 13. Input Output (FIO)

Weaknesses in this category are related to the rules and recommendations in the Input Output (FIO) section of the SEI CERT Oracle Secure Coding Standard for Java.

Audit

Weaknesses in this category are related to the design and architecture of audit-based components of the system. Frequently these deal with logging user activities in o...

Comprehensive CWE Dictionary

This view (slice) covers all the elements in CWE.

Weaknesses Introduced During Implementation

This view (slice) lists weaknesses that can be introduced during implementation.

Weaknesses Introduced During Design

This view (slice) lists weaknesses that can be introduced during design.


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